Sedikit renungan tentang latar belakang konflik keagamaan

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Di dunia ini perbedaan adalah sesuatu yang pasti terjadi, karena Tuhan juga menciptakan manusia dalam ragam yang berbeda. Begitu juga tentang pemikiran manusia dalam memahami ajaran agama.

Sejatinya, agama yang bersumber dari Tuhan mengajarkan nilai-nilai kebaikan, oleh karena itu dalam konflik keagamaan yang paling dimungkinkan untuk bersalah adalah pribadi manusia itu sendiri dan bukan faktor ajaran Agama.

Kita bisa lihat dalam Islam misalnya, konflik keagamaan sudah terjadi sejak berabad-abad lalu bahkan pada masa Khulafaurrasyidin sebagai pengganti Rasulullah SAW pun juga tak luput dari konflik.

Memasuki era modern, Islam merupakan agama yang mungkin paling sering berkonflik antar sesama pemeluknya, hal ini disebabkan banyaknya golongan-golongan yang terdapat dalam Islam dan seringkali mereka bergesekan antara satu dengan lainnya.

Permasalahan ini akan diperparah oleh tindakan-tindakan provokasi serta kepentingan pribadi yang menunggangi hal tersebut. Penuturan Soerjono Soekanto mengutip pendapat Leopold Von Wiese dan Howard Becker menyebutkan bahwa ada empat akar penyebab konflik, diantaranya:
1. Perbedaan individu atau kelompok;
2. Perbedaan kebudayaan;
3. Perbedaan kepentingan;
4. Perubahan sosial. (1)
Penulis menambahkan satu point faktor penyebab dari konflik keagamaan, yaitu:
5. Pemahaman yang keliru terhadap ajaran Agama: Dimana seringkali kita jumpai kerusuhan maupun teror-teror yang terjadi di berbagai dunia ini berkedok ajaran agama. Penafsiran-penafsiran yang dilakukan secara radikal akan menjadikan sebuah spirit yang luar biasa untuk mendukung aksi-aksi tindak kekerasan. Hal tersebut sangat berbahaya jika didoktrinkan kepada orang-orang yang lemah pemahaman agamanya.

Sedangkan jika melihat fungsi-fungsi agama dalam kehidupan masyarakat maka akan terasa sangat jauh kaitannya dengan konflik keagamaan, disini agama berperan sebagai faktor pembentuk kehidupan masyarakat yang baik dan bermoral. Diantara fungsi dari agama yang umum dalam masyarakat diantaranya:

a. Fungsi edukatif; Agama menjadi pendidik dan pembimbing tentang hakikat kebenaran dan kebajikan, yang disampaikan oleh Nabi, Kiai, Guru, Pendeta dan lain sebagainya.

b. Fungsi Penyelamatan; Dimana agama telah mengenalkan manusia kepada Tuhan, hingga akhirnya dapat diketahui tentang janji-janji serta ancaman yang dikehendakiNya. Dan hal itu menjadikan manusia ingin memperoleh keselamatan baik di dunia maupun kelak jika ia sudah mati.

c. Fungsi pengawasan sosial; Agama mengkonstruksikan nilai-nilai susila dari adat yang dipandang baik bagi kehidupan moral dalam bermasyarakat

d. Fungsi memupuk persaudaraan; Orang yang merasa bersaudara akan bersatu, persatuan ini ditimbulkan oleh suatu rasa kesamaan pandangan, ideology, sikap, tujuan serta lain sebagainya yang terdapat dalam diri masing-masing individu. Begitu juga ketika persamaan tersebut terjadi dalam hal agama. Selain itu, dalam ajarannya agama juga mendoktrin untuk terbentuknya suatu kesatuan persaudaraan seperti, dalam Islam yang mengatakan bahwa orang muslim satu dan lainnya adalah saudara.

e. Fungsi transformative; Dimana agama memberikan beberapa nilai-nilai baru yang lebih bermanfa’at daripada beberapa nilai-nilai yang terdapat pada kebudayaan masyarakat.

  1. Soerjono Soekanto, Sosiologi Suatu Pengantar, PT. Raja Grafindo, (Jakarta : 1995), h. 107-108

(‘Aliyul F.)[metaslider id=143]

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